This class emphasizes clinical problem-solving skills. Lectures and other learning experiences allow students to improve areas of weakness, consolidate clinical skills, integrate knowledge from the various disciplines of the program and achieve their fullest potential before graduation.

This course builds on the material from Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 and explores the, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, urinary, digestive, respiratory and reproductive systems. All systems are then integrated using cross-sectional analysis of the human body. Observation of prosected human cadavers is an opportunity during laboratory sessions.

This course is a study of eukaryotic cells from both structural and functional viewpoints. Course emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of cell metabolism, growth, division, cell responses to diseases, cellular communication and how cells create and use energy. Labs will provide into insights into cell experiments and methods. Mastering the material presented in this course will aid students planning careers in health fields and enhance their ability to understand issues in biology today.

This course is a continuation of Chinese Medical Pathology 1. Students will complete the study of Zang-Fu organ patterns and move on to Febrile Disease, including Cold and Warm Disease theories. Finally, students will begin the study of the Four Examinations, covering Observation, Listening, Smelling and Palpating.

The early human embryology (fertilization through the three germ layers) and the special embryology of the major organ systems as well as special sense organs.

Microanatomy of cells and tissues. This course surveys the microscopy and ultrastructure of cells; introduces the four basic tissue types; and stresses the functional anatomy of epithelium, connective tissues, muscles and nerve tissue.

The functional microanatomy of the organs of the circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine and immune systems.

This course surveys both theory and practice of health care from prehistoric times to the present day. Major topics will include herbalism, nutrition, childbirth, surgical procedures, pain management, sanitation, antibiotics, and mental illness. Perhaps the most important topic of all will be the history of disease, especially the Black Death and other pandemics. Special attention will be paid to the intersection of medicine and religion, the differences between allopathic and alternative forms of health care, and the historical roles of healers and health care institutions.